Pastor Grasso explains that Christ’s death was also substitutionary. Christ died in our place. If it was substitutionary then it must also be limited in scope, since not everyone will be saved from their sins. All of this implies that the atonement was efficacious as well. Christ accomplished all He set out to do.
Pastor Grasso explains the legal nature of the atonement. Christ stood in our legal place to take the penalty for our sins that we might be declared righteous by God. This is part of the defense of the Reformed view of penal substitutionary atonement.
Pastor Grasso explains the two elements of atonement: expiation and propitiation. In expiation, as seen in the sin offering, our sins are cleansed. In propitiation, as seen in the burnt offering, God’s wrath is satisfied.
Pastor Grasso explains the relationship between the incarnation and the atonement building on Anselm’s Cur Deus Homo. He shows that the incarnation is necessitated by the atonement. Without God dying on the cross, man cannot be saved.
Pastor Grasso explains the difference between objective and subjective theories of the atonement and shows that the Scriptures teach that Christ’s death provided a real, objective atonement.